Non-English Proficient   Leave a comment

Non-English Proficient

Teacher Modeled Instruction

1.3 Identifies simple prefixes, common suffixes, and abbreviated words in context.

_ Use Word Wall* activities to add suffixes to known words -s, -ing,-ed

_ Use pictures, modeling to demonstrate change in meaning

_ Explain, explore common abbreviations as they arise

_ Select a “king of -ing” who adds “-ing” to a variety of words

Limited English Proficient

Teacher Guided Instruction

1.3 Identifies the meanings of simple prefixes, common suffixes, and abbreviated words in context and use context clues to determine word meanings.

_ Use NEP activities and;

_ Add simple prefixes un-, re-, etc.

_ Generate words by adding prefixes and suffixes

Fully English Proficient

Independent with Teacher as Monitor

1.3 Uses dictionaries and glossaries to determine the meanings and other features of unknown words.

_ Use NEP and LEP activities and:

_ “Grow Words” starting with the root and adding prefix and suffix elements

Ex: Depend

Dependable

Undependable

_ Discuss/demonstrate changes in meaning

_ Use activities in Making Big Words

_ Use dictionary to look at root word and see how morphemes change the meanings

_ Use Word Banks, word sorts, and word hunts in text

_ Use CLOZE* activities-Dictations, words on the wall and content words

THE SECOND LANGUAGE

ACQUISITION PROCESS

Students acquire a second language by taking in language that they understand, by producing language that is understood by others, and by doing both in the context of interaction that promotes language learning. In the process of participating in communication, Second Language Learners (L2) begin consciously, as well as unconsciously, to structure a representation of the particular target language, a task the human brain is uniquely qualified to do. As the learner engages in communicative interaction, the representation of the target language can be refined and rules generated. This gradually developing linguistic system is called an inter language; it rests somewhere on a continuum between the speaker’s first language and the language that he or she is learning. On this continuum, different aspects of the language may develop at different rates; thus the learner’s syntax, for example, may be further from the target language than his or her pronunciation. The L2 traits that characterize this inter language are the result of the learner’s less than perfect representation of the target language. They are often the result of incorrect guesses on the part of the learner about how to say something in English. These faulty hypotheses, however, are a crucial part of the L2 learning process. Feedback, either formally from a teacher or informally from other speakers, can cause the learner to revise these hypotheses; over a long period of time these revisions can help the learner approach mastery of the language. Unfortunately, if L2 learners function for long in a language without getting adequate feedback, they may not fully develop their control of the language. In fact, their language development may stop before they have acquired all the Natures of the language.

THE CHALLENGE OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE

Acquiring the kind of language required in academic settings is a far more challenging task than learning a language for merely conversational purposes and takes much longer. L2 learners are often at a disadvantage because they are faced with the task of acquiring and using English at the same time they are trying to learn academic subjects. Classroom lectures in, say, science or social studies are given in English; a report for science must be written in English; and assignments in mathematics courses often require both sophisticated reading and writing skills in English for the student to offer a solution to a problem. Thus, in instances where their English -speaking peers have only to accomplish one task, L2 learners have to confront two types of learning tasks – one in acquiring a new language and the other in gaining content mastery.  In classrooms where the language of instruction is English, much of what many L2 learners who lack sufficient English skills hear and even more of what they are assigned to read may be ultimately incomprehensible to them. Students are often asked to read tests that are far beyond their language capacity to understand. They can derive meaning from such tasks only when specifically designed activities accompany the assignment to make tests comprehensible. For example, teachers can preview the material and attempt to activate students’ background knowledge and help to fill in the gaps by explaining and defining words and helping students understand concepts. Further, teachers can also help students monitor their listening and reading and teach them to ask for help when they do not understand what is presented in class or in a textbook. Without this kind of assistance, L2 learners, even when surrounded by spoken and written English, will “tune out” learning, and their exposure to English will contribute little or nothing to their language development.

This guide is a document developed for teachers of grades K-12 and/or teachers in classrooms designed to serve specifically Limited English Proficient (LEP) students as well as those students who were previously identified as LEP students. With the recent passage of the “No Child Left Behind” Act of 2001, local and state educational agencies must provide researched-based instructional educational programs designed to help LEP students achieve the same academic content and academic achievement standards that other children are expected to meet. We believe that all children must meet the English Language Arts standards in the Philippines. In order to fulfill our national initiative to ensure that all learners achieve high academic standards, this guide provides a correlation of researched-based strategies in the form of ESL skills, coupled with effective performance activities, to the adopted English Language Arts Standards. This invaluable tool that supports our existing curriculum was developed by a team of interdisciplinary experts representing the English, Reading, and ESL teachers and consultants as well as school administrators who presently serve diverse learners, including LEP students.

The following sections in the guide, elementary and secondary, will provide a well-structured alignment of teaching and learning strategies to link ESL skills and performance activities to the adopted English Language Arts (ELA) standards established by the Department of Education.

Non-English Proficient

Teacher Modeled Instruction

1.1 Uses knowledge of high-frequency words to read texts aloud with fluency, accuracy, and expression.

_ Use Shared Reading* with enlarged text (big books, charts, overheads)

_ Use predictable, patterned text*

_ Use Readers’ Theatre*

_ Use CLOZE* activities

_ Use Word Wall (and support activities (cite Cunningham) that are meaningful

_ Use simple stories with strong picture support that repeat high frequency words in context (e.g.; Rigby, Wright Group, Dominic Press)

_ Use Guided Reading*

_ Locate known words in text

Glossary Term

1.0: Students know and use word analysis skills and strategies to comprehend new words encountered in text in English.

READING – K-6

Fully English Proficient

Independent with Teacher as Monitor

Limited English Proficient

Teacher Guided Instruction

1.1 Reads texts aloud with fluency, accuracy, and appropriate intonation and expressions; read high frequency words to build fluency.

_ Rhythms, choral reading

_ Read logos and signs in environment

_ Content Shelter Text Highlight:  Vocabulary Read with Fluency,

_ Sing songs, read poems

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