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William Davis of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

c154 WILLIAM DAVIS: b. near Philadelphia, 1756; had two brothers, Henry and Jonas; served in the Revolutionary War for four yrs.; in 1784 m. Isabella Scott; had with other issue (1) Henry: b. 1787; d. 1860; m. Jane Johnston; was a sergeant in Capt. Leiper’s Company in War of 1812….

Samuel Davis of Bucks County, Pennsylvania

L127 SAMUEL DAVIS: b. 1669 in County Tyrone, Ireland; d. 1758 in Bucks County, Pa. (1) James: b. 1699; near Drumquin, Ireland; m. Eliza Jennings; both died in Bucks County, Pa. Founder of the American Branch. 6 ch. (A) William: b. 1730 near Drumquin; m. Mary Means; served in the…

Dolar Davis of Cambridge, Massachusetts

F114 DOLAR DAVIS: came to America from the county of Kent, England, 1634. Settled at Cambridge, Mass. He was b. 1593; d. 1673; m. (1), Margery Willard, 1624, and m. (2), Joanna Bursley. (1) John: b. 1626. (2) Simon: b. 1636; d. 1713; Lieut. of militia; in command of Concord…

Thomas Davis of Maryland

G115 THOMAS DAVIS: (the elder), came to America from Wales. Settled in Maryland sometime after 1600. The founder of the Davises of Anne Arundel and Howard Counties, Md. He m. Mary Pierpont and had eleven ch. including: (1) Thomas, Jr.: b. Feb. 1704; m. Elizabeth Gaither; d. 1749. Ch include:…

William Davis of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania

a152 WILLIAM DAVIS: m. Rebecca (?) and settled in Cumberland Co., Pa. Had with other issue (1) James D.: b. 1775; d. 1857; m. Susan McClintock. (A) William: b. 1801; m. Harriet Parr. (a) Elizabeth. (b) James: m. Emma McLaren. (c) Ruth D.: m. Willard Harsh. (d) William: b. 1861;…

 

Sir John Davis of Hollywood, Glouestershire, England

B107 SIR JOHN DAVIS: 1st Bart.; K. C. B.; of Hollywood, Co. Gloucester; D.C.L. Oxford; F.R.S.; sometime H.M. plenipotentiary in China; gov. and comm-in-chief in Hongkong; b. 1795; created bart., 1845; m (1) 1822, Emily (dau. of Lieut-Col. Richard Hurnfravs, Bengal, India) (1) Sullivan Francis: acting judge, Arrah, Bengal; b. 1827; m. 1861, Agnes Maria (dan. Capt. John Forhes-Middleton); (d.s.p.v.p., 1862. (2) Henrietta Anne: d. unm., 1909. (3) Emily Nowell: b. 1823; m. 1851, Rev. D. A. Beaufort. Issue. (4) Florence: m. 1863, Lieut-Col.; J. B. Lind, Bengal, N. I.; d. 1914; issue. m. (2) 1867, Lucy Ellen (dau. Rev. T. J. Rocke, vicar of Exmouth); d. 1890. (1) Francis Baileau (Sir): 2nd and last Bart.; b. 1871; m. 1891, Ella Alice (dau. Ed. Lockwood, of Kingham, Chipping Norton); d.s.p., 1896; baronetcy became extinct.

Davis of Bryn-Derwen

C108 DAVID DAVIES: of Blaengwawr, Aberdare; m. Mary (dau. of Lewis); d. 1867.

C109 LEWIS DAVIS: of Bryn-Derwen; m. 1858, Mary Ann (dau. Thomas Cross, of Bryn-Hyrfryd); d. 1888.

C110 THE LATE FREDERICK LEWIS DAVIS: B.A.; LL.B., Camb; of Bryn­-Derwen, Co. Glamorgan; J. P. and County Alderman; High Sheriff, 1890; Barrister-at-Law; b. 1863; m. 1889, Helen Brydie (dau. Rob’t Smith, of Brentham Park, Stirling); d. 1920. (1) Lewis Frederick: b. 1891. (2) Alistair Jeffries: b. 1900.

Davis of Swerford Park

D111a SAMUEL DAVIS: Esq. of Swerford; d. 1874.

D112b ROBERT SNOW BOLTON DAW5: Esq. of Swerford Park, Co. Oxford, J. P., and Lord of the Manor of Swerford; m. Sophia Perkins. (1) Sophia Louisa Bolton: b. 1866; m. Sir Charles Simeon King, Bart. of Corrard.

Davis of Pictou, Nova Scotia, Canada

1164 DAVIS: b. in Pictou, Nova Scotia; was a carpenter and d. 1895, when about 73 yrs. of age. He m. and his son 1165 WILIAM W. DAVIS: b. in Nova Scotia, 1844; m. Elizabeth Leadley. Their son

l166 CHARLES DAVIS: b. in Hartford, Conn., 1878; m. Lillian Roulston. They reside at 54 Clermont St., Hartford, and have a son

l167 RUSSELL EDWARD DAVIS: b. in Conn. Mar., 1905. He is a professor in Chateau du Rosey, Rolle, Switzerland.

David and Ellen Davis of Cardiff, Wales

i161 DAVID DAVIS: was b. at Cardiff, Wales, 1818, d. 1891, m. Ellen Hans and had the following:

(1) William: b. at Cardiff, 1836. He was a land owner, who m. Helen Phillips in 1860. She was b. at Tree Forest, Wales. They had: (A) Charles E.: b. 1868. (B) Davis A.: b. 1865. (C) Frederick H.: b. 1863. He and bros. were b. at Cardiff.

Frederick m. Elizabeth Smallwood and had: (a) Hans W.: m. Myrtle Reynolds. (b) Edith S.: m. Joseph Felzien. (c) Charles E.: m. Gladys Neuberg. (d) Albert: b. 1890, in Nebr. Educated Un. of Omaha, 1919; Creighton Un. 1911; Un. of Nebr. 1921, receiving degrees of B.Sc., D.D.S., M.D. and honorary degree granted in 1926, Fellow of the Am. Coil, of Dentistry. Mr. Davis practices oral and plastic surgery in San Fran­cisco. He is a mem. Of several fraternities, and honorary societies.

(2) Reuben. (3) Alfred. (4) Edward.

 

CHARLES DAVIS: (d. 1755); bookseller and publisher; one of the first to issue priced catalogues of second-hand books.

DAVID: (1745—1827); Welsh poet; conducted school at Castle Howel, 1785; translated Scougall’s “Life of God in the Soul of Man” into Welsh.

DAVID DANIEL: (1777—1841); physician; M.D., Glasgow, 1801; attended the Duchess of Kent at the birth of Queen Victoria, 1819.

EDWARD: (1835—1867); subject painter; first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1854; died in Rome.

HENRY EDWARDS: (1756—1784); opponent of Gibbon; B.A. Balliol College; priest, 1780; fellow and tutor of Balliol, 1780.

HENRY GEORGE: (1830—1857); topographer; left in manuscript “Memor­ials of the Hamlet of Knightsbridge” (1859), and ‘On Account of Pimlico”.

JAMES: (d. 1755); Welsh satirist; M.A., Jesus College, Oxford, 1729; MB, 1732; published a satire on the contemporary school of etymologists.

JOHN: (d. 1622); navigator; made voyage to the East Indies as pilot and captain; captured by the Dutch at Pularoon, 1617; released 1618; died at Batavia, 1622.

  1. P. (called “Pope” Davis): (d. 1862); painter; called “Pope” from his picture of the “Talbot Family Receiving the Benediction of the Pope”; painted at Rome; exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1811—43.

JOHN BUNNELL: (1780—1824); physician; imprisoned at Montpellier and Verdun at Bonaparte; M.D. Edinburgh, 1803; physician to troops invalided home from Walcheren.

JOHN FORD: (1773—1864); physician; M.D., Edinburgh, 1797; L.R.C.P., 1808; physician to the General Hospital, Bath, 1817—54.

SIR JOHN FRANCIS: (1795—1890); diplomatist; writer in East India Company’s factory at Canton; joint commissioner in China with Lord Napier, commander-in-chief at Hongkong, 1844—8; published works on China.

JOSEPH BARNARD: (1801—1881); craniologist; surgeon on an Arctic whaler; 1820; M.C.S., 1843; chief work “Crania Britannica”, 1865.

LOCKYER: (1719—1791); bookseller; nephew of Charles; member of the booksellers’ club which produced Johnson’s, “Lines of the Poets”, 1788.

MARY: (fl. 1663—1669); actress in the company of Sir William D’Avenant, 1660; performed in various plays by Etherege, Dryden, and Shirley; frequently mentioned by Pepys as a dancer and court beauty.

NATHAN: (1812—1882); traveler and excavator; resided in an Old Moorish palace near Tunes; engaged on behalf of the British Museum in excavation at Carthage and Utica, 1856—8.

RICHARD BARRETT: (1782—1854); animal painter; exhibited at the Royal Academy (1802—53); animal painter to William IV, 1831.

THOMAS OSB0RN: (1814—1845); poet and politician; graduated at Trinity College, 1836; developed Young Ireland party out of the extremists who were dissatisfied with O’Connell’s methods.

WILLIAM: (1771—1807); mathematician and editor of the “Companion of the Gentlemen’s Diary”; bookseller and publisher; wrote or edited works on fluxions.

WILLIAM: (1812—1873); landscape and portrait painter; professor of painting, Liverpool Academy; exhibited landscapes at the Royal Academy, 1851—72.

E112 JAMES DAVIS: B. about 1584. He came to New England as early as 1634 and was one of the original settlers of Hampton, 1638. Removed to Haverhill, 1646, being one of the twelve who petitioned the General Court for authority to settle at Pentucket where they founded the present city of Haverhill, Mass. His son

E113 JOHN DAVIS: b. in Gloucestershire, England, 1621; m Jane Peasley. In 1650 he was on a committee to lay out a boundary between Haverhill and Salisbury. About 1653 he went to Oyster River where he settled near Davis Creek. Had numerous grants of land, was selectman seven times, constable, surveyor of lands. Called ensign as early as 1662. Ch. include:

(1) Sarah: b. 1649; m. James Smith; killed by Indians, 1694. (2) John: b. 1651. He and his wife and several ch. were killed in the Massacre of 1694 and two daus. were carried as captives to Canada. (3) Moses: b. 1657; m. Reuhamah Dow, 1681. He was a private, under his brother, Capt. James Davis in a scout against the Indians in 1712 and he and his son, Moses, were killed by the redskins in 1724. (A) John: b. 1682; m. Abigail Meader. Ch. include: (a) John: m. Judith (?) about 1797. (b) Nathaniel: b. 1716; m. Hannah Davis. 1. John: bapt. 1746. 2. Elijah: bapt. 1750. 3. Solomon. 4. George. 5. Lemuel. 6. Eleazer: b. 1742. In 1771 m. Sarah Cook. Ch. include: A. Hezekial: m. (?) Nutter B. Eleazer: m. Polly Sanborn. His son m. Ann Waldron, 1846. C. John: m. Mercy McDuffee. D. Nathaniel: b. 1777; m. (1), Mary Stevens, (2), Clarissa Gordon. 12 ch. a. Stevens: b. 180~; m. 1827, Satira Crowell; had a large family. b. Franklin: b. 1804; m. Emily Gilmore, 1827. c. Seth F.: b. 1806; m. Charlotte Heal and had James H. (b. 1843), Frank (b. 1852). d. John: b. 1808; m. (1), Rhoda Merrill, (2), Rhoda Maxfield; had a large family. e. Eleazer: b. 1810; d. 1886. f. Charles: b. 1825; m. Esther Sargent. He d. 1890.

(B) Moses: B. 1686; m. and had among others: (a) Moses: m. Elizabeth Davis. Had Aaron (who in 1776m. Susannah Otis), Elisha (who settled in New Durham), Elizabeth (who m. Paul Demeritt), Lois and Martha (who m. Jonathan Woodman). (B) James: B. about 1687; m. (1), Mary Stevenson, (2), Elizabeth Dunn; had Mary, bapt. 1726 and Samuel, bapt. 1729. (c) Solomon: b. about 1695; m. Elizabeth Davis. (d) Jabez: b. about 1701; m. Abigail Willey. (e) Ebenezer: b. 1702; m. and had Solomon, B. 1755 (in. Temperance Colbath) and Timothy, bapt. 1755. (f) Aaron: d. unm. before 1772. (4) Joseph: b. 1660; m. Mary Stevens. Lieut, 1712 and was a con­stable in 1714. He had four daus. and one son, Benjamin, who m. Miriam Roberts.

(5) James: b. 1662; m. Elizabeth Chesley; was a colonel.

(A) James: b. 1689; m. Ruth Ayer, (2), Elizabeth Payne. He had two daus. and James, b. 1744; Daniel, b. 1748; Thomas, b. 1750, m. Joanna Keating; and John, b. 1754.

(B) Samuel: b. 1692; m. Martha Chesley.

(a) Samuel: b. 1720; m. Abigail (?).

  1. Moses: d. about 1769; had two ch.
  2. Eleazer: bapt. 1743; m. Keziah Langley.

(b) Eleazer: b. 1722.

(c) James: b. 1724 and d. 1752.

(d) Thomas: b. 1732; m. (1), Elizabeth Roberts, (2), Abigail Jones.

(C) Daniel: b. 1695.

(a) Obadiah: b. 1764; m. Deborah Lord and had Frank, Sarah and Obadiah.

(b) Thomas: b. 1748; m. Sally Drew. Served in Revolution. Settled in Maine and had John (b. 1784), Bradstreet (b.

1786) and Samuel (b. about 1790).

(c) Francis: bapt. 1752. A blacksmith of Yarmouth, Me.

(D) Ephraim: b. 1704; m. Ruth (?). Selectman in Durham, 1743.

(a) James: b. 1734, m. Elizabeth Durgin (?).

(b) Ephraim: b. 1739. In 1764 he m. Lois Drew and had one d au.

(c) Josiah: b. 1743.

(E) Eleazer: b. 1709 and d. 1748.

 

F114 DOLAR DAVIS: came to America from the county of Kent, England,

  1. Settled at Cambridge, Mass. He was b. 1593; d. 1673; m. (1),

Margery Willard, 1624, and m. (2), Joanna Bursley.

(1) John: b. 1626.

(2) Simon: b. 1636; d. 1713; Lieut. of militia; in command of Concord men at the Brookfield fight with Indians, 1675. He m. Mary Blood, 1660.

(A) James: b. 1668; d. 1727; farmer of Concord; m. Anne Smedley, 1700.

(a) Thomas: b. 1705; d. 1786; farmer of Concord; captain of militia and selectman, 1762; m. Sarah Jones, 1725.

  1. Josiah: b. 1750; d. 1815; farmer; served during Revolu­tion. In 1772 m. Abigail Hubbard (1754—1844).
  2. Charles: b. 1797; d. 1865; Trader at Concord and inspector in Boston Custom House. In 1829 m

Lucy Hunt, dau. of a Revolutionary soldier.

  1. Charles Wilder: b. 1833; d. 1898. Adjutant in 51st Ill. Infantry, becoming Colonel in 1865.

Provost Marshall General, Dept. of Missouri, 1864. Present at many engagements and received surrender of General Thompson in

Northern Arkansas. In 1870 he m. Emma Moore, dau. of a prominent horticulturist of Concord.

(I) Bradley Moore: b. 1871. Add: 2015 Geddes Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich. [See Ch. (J)].

(B) Simon: m. Elizabeth Woodhouse. Had, with other issue (a) Simon: m. Phoebe Aldrich. Had, with other issue

  1. Simon: b. 1759; d. 1842; served in Revolutionary War; m. Mary Fuller and among others had a son, Silas, b. 1780, d. 1860; m. Phoebe Bennett and had twelve ch. including:
  2. William B.: b. 1810, d. 1891; m. Martha Haywood. Their son
  3. Byron B.: b. 1859; is practicing surgery in Omaha, Nebr., at the Medical Arts Bldg. He m. Florence Eaton Davis, who is also a direct descendant of Dolor Davis.

(3) Samuel: b. 1640; m. Mary Meaddowes.

(A) Samuel: b. 1669.

(B) Daniel: b. 1673.

(C) Stephen: b. 1686.

(D) Simon: m. Dorothy Heald.

(a) Simon: 2d, b. 1714; m. Hannah Gates.

  1. David: b. 1740.
  2. Simon: b. 1744.
  3. Isaac: b. 1749; m. Anna Brigham, (2), Mrs. Susannah Harrington.
  4. Phineas: b. 1772; m. Martha Eager.
  5. Francis: b. 1794; m. Martha Parmenter.
  6. Isaac: b. 1799; m. Mary Holman Easterbrook. c. Phineas: b. 1801; m. Abagail Thayer.
  7. William: b. 1803; m. Almira L. Sherman.
  8. Andrew J.: b. 1815.
  9. Joseph: b. 1774; m. Lydia Ball; m. (2), Lydia Cogswell.
  10. Joseph: b. 1800; m. Mary Wood.
  11. John B.: b. 1808; m. Harriet Porter Gates.
  12. George C.: b. 1813; d. 1873; m. Mary E. Bigelow.
  13. James: b. 1818; d. 1893; m. Lucy Allen.
  14. Isaac: b. 1779; d. 1859; m. Polly Rice.
  15. Henry Cassett: b. 1807; d. 1896; m. Ellen W. Deering.
  16. Isaac Brigham: b. 1809; d. 1832.
  17. John: b. 1813; d. 1844. d. Cyrus: b. 1822; d. 1855.
  18. Samuel: b. 1784, d. 1852; m. Mrs. Elizabeth God­frey.
  19. Samuel B.: b. 1811, d. 1896; m. Mary Ann Stain.
  20. Henry: b. 1814; d. 1889; m. Susan Baker.
  21. James G.: b. 1820; d. 1900; m. Polly Robinson.
  22. John: b. 1787; d. 1854; m. Eliza Bancroft.
  23. John Chandler: b. 1822, d. 1907.
  24. George Henry: b. 1824.
  25. Bruyn Hasbrouck: b. 1827; Brig.-Gen. in Civil War.
  26. Horace: b. 1831; mem. of Congress.
  27. Andrew McFarland: b. 1833. S.B., Harvard Coil.

(b) Israel: b. 1717.

(c) Joseph: 1). 1720.

  1. Samuel: b. 1751.
  2. John: b. 1752.

 

G115 THOMAS DAVIS: (the elder), came to America from Wales. Settled in

Maryland sometime after 1600. The founder of the Davises of Anne

Arundel and Howard Counties, Md. He m. Mary Pierpont and had

eleven ch. including:

(1) Thomas, Jr.: b. Feb. 1704; m. Elizabeth Gaither; d. 1749. Ch include:

(A) Amos: b. 1747; mem. of the Committee of Observation, Arundel Co., 1775.

(B) Ephraim: b. 1736—7; m. Elizabeth Howard. Their son

(a) Thomas: b. 1768; m. Elizabeth Bowie, 1802. Served as officer of a company that went to Penna., 17.94. to quell Whiskey Insurrection; often a delegate to General Assembly, and one of the Council to the Governor. Their son

  1. Allen Bowie: b. 1809, was a delegate to the convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, pres. Brooke­ville Academy, pres. Board of Agricultural Coil, and was elected to the Legislature. He m. Rebecca Comfort, dau. of Chief Justice Thomas Dorsey.
  2. Thomas: b. 1840; d. 1889.
  3. Win. Wilkins: b. 1842; d. 1866.
  4. Rebecca: b. 1843.
  5. Mary Dorsey: b. 1845. She is the only surviving dau. of Allen.
  6. Esther Wilkins: b. 1849.

(2) Robert: m. Ruth Gaither. He was a vestryman in Queen Caroline’s parish, 1750. Lived near Woodstock, Md.

(A) Nicholas: m. and had one son, John. (B) Ely.

(C) Robert: He had Richard, defender of Baltimore, 1814.

(D) Thomas.

(E) Ichabod.

(F) Caleb: m. Louisa Riggs.

(a) John D.

(b) Henry: b. 1823.

(c) Win. R.

(3) Richard: m. Ruth Warfield, 1725, d. 1743.

(A) Col. Richard: He and members of his family, made brilliant and distinguished records in Revolutionary War. Their names are found in many of the old records, letters and orders of the period.

(a) Capt. Richard: b. 1748; d. 1801; m. and had Elizabeth. Rezin and William.

(b) Amos.

(c) Rezin: b. 1753; d. 1800; m. and had a family.

(d) Darius.

(e) Dennis.

(f) Isaac: b. 1783; d. 1850; m. Kezia Askew; Ch. include:

  1. Albert G.: b. 1805; m. Mary Rodiffer; had, with other issue
  2. Isaac: m. and had 6 ch.
  3. Silas: m. and had Gene who m. Edna Slocum.

(g) Albinus: b. 1765; m. Sarah Carter. In 1797 he purchased a farm at Elm Grove, XV. Va., where some of his descend­ants still live.

  1. Richard: d. in Ohio.
  2. John R.: had five sons and one dau.

3 Arthur D.: had four daus.

  1. Cephas: b. 1798; m. Elizabeth Robinson; settled at Elm Grove.
  2. John R.: m. Katherine Brown, 1869. They had Adella who is m. and living at Pasadena, Calif., and John R.
  3. Richard C.: b. 1835 at Elm Grove; m. Margaret Keyser; settled in Illinois. Among their ch. were:
  4. John Calvin: b. 1861; m. Edna Scott. He d. 1927.

(I) Margaret: b. 1895; m. Claud Young and has Donald.

(II) Charlotte: lives in Calif. and has two daus. (III) Philip: b. 1899. Resides at 371 Salem St., Glendale, Calif.

(IV) Donald Carter: b. 1901. Graduate of University of Kansas. He m. in 1928.

  1. James Oliver: b. 1861. Graduated from Univ. of Ill. He m. Rozina Fairchild, and lives at

2119 S. Ryan St., Lake Charles, La.

(I) Elmer: b. 1887. Instructor in Univ. of Calif.; geologist in New Mexico; m. Grace

Murphy, 1910. They have one dau.

(II) Richard Henry: m. Florence Lathrop and

had Richard, d. y., and Russell, b. 1926.

(111) John Oliver: b. 1892; m. Ruth Wilson.

They have Helen, b. 1918; John, b. 1921,

and Phebe, b. 1923.

(IV) Elbert: b. 1894. Admitted to the bar,

  1. He m. Alice Kingman. They have

Kenneth, b. 1918, Gertrude, b. 1920, and

Keith, b. 1923.

  1. William: b. 1862; m Nettie Wasson. Live in Kansas.
  2. Elmer: b. 1864. One dau. who m. Richard Ryder.
  3. Elbert: b. 1870; m. May Armstrong. Lives in Chicago.

(I) John: b. 1903; m Florence Smith and has Richard, b. 1924.

(II) Hugh: b. 1910.

  1. Cephas: b. 1837; m. Dorothy Arkle, 1863. They had Cephas, b. 1865, and now living in Benwood, W. Va.
  2. Arthur C.: b. 1840; d. y.
  3. James W.: b. 1842; d. 1911; m. Mary Kimmons.
  4. Charley: b. 1868, m. Mary Henderson and had Carrol, d. y. and Wilbur, b. 1897.
  5. Erastus: b. 1871 and lives at Elm Grove.
  6. Ralph: b. 1876. He m. Lizzie Butler and has Jesse, b. 1900.

 

Davis Family HistoryThe Davis family is among the forty-nine “best families” selected by the American Historical-Genealogical Society for whom the Society has published family histories during the past few years. The Davis family has been prominent in the British Empire and in the United States, its members having played important roles in war and in peace. Family pride is a commendable trait and should be cultivated. All Davises have just cause to be proud of their family history and traditions.

In references No. 7 and No. 14 we find the following regarding the origin and meaning of the name Davis.

Davis is a Welsh surname, and the family is among the most numerous in England and Wales. This is due to the fact that there are so many varia�tions of the name. The original name was David which signifies well-beloved�popular in Biblical days and a favorite among the Scottish kings.

Though of ancient standing in Wales, David scarcely appears in England before the Conquest. Modified in various forms, it has produced many family names such as Davis, Davidson, Davies, Daves, Dawson, Dawes, Day, Dakin, etc. The Irish form is M�Daid; the French, Devis.

The data in this volume is gathered from reliable sources. We have selected what we consider the most important material. Many of the daughters, and sons for whom no issue was shown, have been omitted from the pedigrees. A missing symbol indicates that a name has been omitted. Those desiring further information are advised to consult the volumes mentioned in the list of References.

The compilers hope that, in producing this volume they are bringing to the Davis family information which will be of interest and value to them, and that they are rendering an important service to the public. They and their associates will be glad to give their cooperation to members of the family who are interested in having a complete genealogy of the family published.

Unless otherwise plainly shown, the persons in this volume whose names are accompanied by three figures are children of the immediately preceding persons bearing immediately preceding numbers. All persons in each group bearing the same letter as a part of their numbers, are directly related. The generations of the descendants of those bearing numbers of three figures are represented as follows. However, some of our material is published as copied from various records without rearrangement according to this system.

Generations 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Symbols (1), etc. (A), etc. (a), etc. 1, etc. A, etc. Generations 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th Symbols a, etc. (I), etc. (i), etc. I, etc. i, etc.

Abbreviations Used in this Manuscript

Address = add Born = b Children = ch
College = coll Died = d Died young = d.y.
Died without issue = d.w.i. died before father = d.v.p. died without issue = d.s.p.
daughter = dau graduated = grad married, moved = m
son, succeeded = s university = univ lives, lived = l

 

Looking for “HENRY” and Davis my Great Grandmother maiden name was “HENRY” she married my Grandfather Davis   Leave a comment

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Generation No. 1

  1. EMELINE1 DAVIS (WILLIAM FRANKLINA, JOHNB) was born Bet. 1846 – Feb 1849 in Carroll Co., AR1. She married (1) JESSIE HENRY2. She married (2) WHEELER2. She married (3) BILL HAMPTON2. She married (4) JAMES RILEY KING3,4 Jan 18704.

Notes for EMELINE DAVIS: 1850 census of Carroll Co., AR has Emeline being twin to Angeline.

Notes for JESSIE HENRY: Julia: ytt98@localaccess.com notes that Jessie and Emeline had four children: Alice, Martin, Roy and Rose.

Notes for WHEELER: Julia: ytt98@localaccess.com notes that Emeline and ? Wheeler were married late in life. Wm. Riley King stated they lived in Highlandville, MO; Blue Jacket, OK; Centralia, OK and then Galena, Stone County, MO. They also lived in Crailes Creek, MO for a time.

Children of EMELINE DAVIS and JESSIE HENRY are:

  1. i. ROY2 HENRY.
  2. ii. ROSE BELL HENRY.

iii. MARTIN HENRY.

  1. ELLEN HENRY.
  2. ALICE HENRY.
  3. MISSOURI HENRY.

Child of EMELINE DAVIS and BILL HAMPTON is:

vii. GINNY2 HAMPTON.

Children of EMELINE DAVIS and JAMES KING are:

  1. viii. MARY LULA2 KING, b. Abt. 1872; d. 1906, Ponce de Leon, Stone Co., MO.
  2. ix. WILLIAM RILEY KING, b. Abt. 1873; d. 31 Mar 1970, El Monte, CA.
  3. MATILDA KING5, b. Abt. 1877.

Generation No. 2

  1. ROY2 HENRY (EMELINE1 DAVIS, WILLIAM FRANKLINA, JOHNB). He married ROSIE BELL LEIGH 26 Sep 1911 in Christian Co., MO6, daughter of WILLIAM LEIGH and LENNIE DAVIS.

Child of ROY HENRY and ROSIE LEIGH is:

  1. EVA RENA3 HENRY, b. 06 Oct 1913; d. 03 Aug 1986.
  2. ROSE BELL2 HENRY (EMELINE1 DAVIS, WILLIAM FRANKLINA, JOHNB). She married (1) TONY OLIVER LEIGH 16 Sep 1910 in Christian Co., MO7, son of WILLIAM LEIGH and LENNIE DAVIS. She married (2) BERT EARLL Abt. 1915.

Child of ROSE HENRY and TONY LEIGH is:

  1. i. LORRINE3 LEIGH, b. 29 Apr 1912.
  2. MARY LULA2 KING (EMELINE1 DAVIS, WILLIAM FRANKLINA, JOHNB)8 was born Abt. 1872, and died 1906 in Ponce de Leon, Stone Co., MO. She married JOHN SIMS9.

Children of MARY KING and JOHN SIMS are:

  1. NELLIE CLEMTINE3 SIMS9, b. 1888.
  2. STELLA EMELINE SIMS9, b. 1891.

iii. EMMA JANE SIMS9, b. 1894.

  1. IVA BELLE SIMS9, b. 1897.
  2. ORA AGNES SIMS9, b. 1900.
  3. ALMA LEONA SIMS9, b. 1905.
  4. WILLIAM RILEY2 KING (EMELINE1 DAVIS, WILLIAM FRANKLINA, JOHNB)10 was born Abt. 1873, and died 31 Mar 1970 in El Monte, CA11. He married MILLIE JANE CROWELL 08 Feb 1899 in Galena, MO11.

Notes for WILLIAM RILEY KING: All of the following is from Julie (ytt98@localaccess.com )

Here is the list of names that are on the sheet from the Bible as they are put down.

UNCLES NAMES

Uncle John King ” Tate King ” Wesley King ” Jim Davis ” Frankie Davis ” Tom Davis ” King Davis

GRANDMA’S NAME BETS DAVIS….GRANDPA’S NAME BILL DAVIS

Three of papa’s grandpa’s brothers, (or Bill Davis’s brothers)

  1. Old uncle Tommy Davis 2. John Davis 3. Jonathan Davis

Tomy Davises kids

  1. Tomy Davis 2. Josh Davis 3. Jim Davis 4. Henry Davis

MY DAD’S HISTORY—by Dorothy J. Wright Revised 1976

Dad’s Mother’s name was Emeline Davis. She married Riley King in Jan. of 1871. She was married four times. First marriage she had 2 children, Mary Lula King, and William Riley King. The next marriage was to a Bill Hampton and they had one girl named Ginny (probably Virginia). The third husband was Jessie Henry. They had four children: Alice, Martin, Roy, and Rose. The fourth husband was named Wheeler. They were married late in life. Dad said that as a kid they lived in Highlansville, Mo., Blue Jacket, Oklahoma and then in Centralia Oklahoma or and then in or near Galina, in Stone County, Missouri. They also lived in Crailes Creek, Mo. for a time.

Dad’s Uncle Frank Davis, his mother’s brother, drew a pension because he got hurt in the Civil war, shoulder. Frank’s son, Jim Davis also drew a pension from the war. Frank gave his home to Jim when he died.

Dad often mentioned these names in his family. Ben, Willy, Lilly. Will and Sari, were twins of Uncle King Davis. Aunt Paula and Will Essic had Simese twins and they had to cut them from her. Could only save her. Aunt Paula also had Willie, Frank, Little Harvey, Betty, Lulie, and Dennie.

Dad’s Grandfather Davis was a big man and he had two brothers. Dad doesn’t remember their names.

Aunt Sis Wilkie (Dad’s mother’s sister) had Munz and one other boy. A boy Willie died.(Could this be Salina, Emalines sister.?)

Dad also spoke of Mary Jane and UncleJim Davis having Marilyn. She married a Melton.

He spoke of Fish Davis, Frank Davis, Steve Davis, Rubb Davis and Uncle Tate King. Also Matt and Margaret was the oldest, then Alley, Ellen, Dicy Lee, then Ginny. Ginny died young from something wrong with her blood.

Ginny Hampton, dad’s half sister had two babies out of wed-lock by a Negro, (Black) named Jim or James Weaver. They were taken away from her and raised by some one else. Alice Hamptons father, Bill Hampton was my dad’s first step-father. Bill Hampton was also a womanizer. Dad didn’t know whether his mother and Hampton were divorced or what.

Aunt Ann Davis, (Angelina) and Emeline Davis (Dad’s mother) were twins. Ann Married a Bob Lieuallen. (Lewallen) Their children were Deeds, Dumpy, Viny, Mary, Henry, Robert, and Charlie.

Uncle John King married a Martha Noe. They had George, Lidy Ann, Kim, Ellen, and Marion. Marion had two boys, Glen and Johnny.

There was an Uncle Jonathan Davis and an Uncle Tate King

Uncle Tom King, his youngest boy married a Miss May Dillard.

Great Aunt Caroline,(Dad’s fathers sister) had Molatto Grand children, Julia and Dick Logan

George King had sons, Marion, Johnny, Green, and Nim. His daughters were Nancy, Jane, Ellen, Emma, Liz, and Sidney.

Uncle Wesley King married late in life. He had no children.

Dad’s grandfather was Bill Davis on his Mother’s side, and his grandmother was Bets Davis.

Dad’s mother liked to cook and sew and make quilts. She was free hearted with food and her door was always open to anyone needing a good meal or a place to sleep for the night. She chewed tobacco as a lot of woman did back then. They raised corn, sweet potatoes, beans, sugar cane. They would make whole barrels of molasses.

Dad and Mother (Millie Jane Crowell) were married on February 8, 1899 in Galena, Mo. They moved to Ahsahka, Idaho in or around 1906.

Dad’s sister, Mary Lula, Or Lula married a John Sims. John Sims was a United Stes Marshall who served as a lawman for some time on the Strip, then returned to Ponce de Leon, Mo. It was Ponce de Leon where Lula Sims got sick and died in 1906 when Alma was 11 months old. She was buried in Crane, Mo, then John then moved to Ahsahka, Idaho near my mother and father, Millie, and William (Riley) King.

They had six daughters. Nellie Clemtine Sims, born 1888, Stella Emeline Sims, born 1891, Emma Jane Sims born 1894, Iva Belle Sims born 1897, Ora Agnes Sims, born 1900, and Alma Leona Sims born 1905. Nellie married Charley Keltner. They had three sons, Elmer, Almond, and Glen. Stella Sims died when she was 17 years old. She is buried in Crane, Mo, by her mother Lula. Emma Sims married a Frank Emerson. They had a son and two daughters, Ralph, Mary, and Nedra. Iva Sims married Bert Myers and had a son and three daughters. Raymond Harold the son was born at Orafina, Idaho on June 10, 1918 and died Dec, 2, 1918 with the World war flu epidemic. The three daughters were Vera, Wanda, and Donna. Ora Agnes Sims married Frank Merrick. They had two sons, Robert and Norman. Alma Leona Sims, married Melvin Robison. They had one son Richard. They moved to California sometime in the forties. Nellie (Sims) Keltner and family moved to Idaho not to long after her father,John Sims moved there. Nellie is buried in Lewiston, not far from where Iva Sims infant son, Raymond is buried.

Dad—William Riley King married my mother, Millie Jane Crowell on Feb. 8, 1899, in Galena Mo.

Julie ytt98@localaccess.com then writes: All of the above was put down by my Aunt Dorothy. She passed away on Feb. 24, 1982. The only one of her brothers and sisters still living is my mother, Virginia. She is 86 years old. She lives in Lewiston, Idaho.

Now here is a little of what I know. After my grandmother and grandfather King moved to Idaho, they homesteaded a piece of property, I believe at Orafino, Idaho. They had three children before they moved here, Leonard, Bliss, and Lula. They had six more after they moved to Idaho, Dorothy, Guy, Virginia, Mabel, Helen, and Earl. From what I understand, grandfather King started taking off for weeks and months at a time around 1907 or 1908. The way my grandmother put it to me was that he came home long enough to get her pregnant, then he was gone again. She never knew where he went but suspected it was back to Mo. and the family for long spells. She said that he used to ride the rails. That was his way of getting there. Hop a freight. Her folks had died when she was very young and she had lived in what would probably be called a foster home now, but she worked for her keep. So when grandpa would take off after they moved out here she wasn’t afraid to as she put it work for her keep again. She cooked for logging camps, cleaned houses anything to keep her family clothed and fed. Baby Earl and Helen died in 1920 with the World Flu epidemic. Helen was three and Earl was only a few months old. My grandfather was gone and grandmother didn’t know where to find him. After these two deaths grandmother decided that if she had to handle this kind of tragedy by herself then there was no reason to be married and she got a divorce. That took place in the early 1920’s. She opened her home to boarders and that is part of the way that she fed and housed her family for the next few years. Bliss died in or around 1924 of a Kidney ailment. Lula died in the late 1930’s or early 1940’s of a heart ailment. She was living in Long Beach, California at the time. Grandmother moved with her daughter (Mabel) to California in 1943 or 1944. Grandfather King had not been in the picture for many many years at this time. According to my mother, he had an alcohol problem by then and was a drifter. I don’t know how she found him when she also moved to California, but in my grandmother’s last years she again shared her home with my grandfather King and my mother was their care giver. Grandpa also played the fiddle and I understand in his younger years he loved to square dance.

That is about all for right now. I would love to have any History, dates of births and deaths, names, places that is known that was where family lived.

Generation No. 3

  1. LORRINE3 LEIGH (ROSE BELL2 HENRY, EMELINE1 DAVIS, WILLIAM FRANKLINA, JOHNB) was born 29 Apr 1912.

Child of LORRINE LEIGH is:

  1. JANET4 LEIGH.

Endnotes

  1. Julia: ytt98@localaccess.com has the twins born 1846.
  2. Julia: ytt98@localaccess.com.
  3. Vonda Sheets GWSVKW@compuserve.com.
  4. Julia: ytt98@localaccess.com.
  5. Vonda Sheets GWSVKW@compuserve.com.
  6. Christian Co., MO GenWeb Site: Marriages 1859-1940, Book 9 page 2.
  7. Christian Co., MO GenWeb Site: Marriages 1859-1940, Book 8 page 278.
  8. Vonda Sheets GWSVKW@compuserve.com.
  9. Julia: ytt98@localaccess.com.
  10. Vonda Sheets GWSVKW@compuserve.com.
  11. Julia: ytt98@localaccess.com.

 

A WHOLE MONTH TEACHING ESL STUDENTS READ!!!!!!!   Leave a comment

BY TEACHER ALVIN ON OCT 21, 2014

ENG INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE CENTER

(GROUP) OR ONE ON ONE
RESOURCE BOOK: PRONUNCIATION PAIRS LEVEL: BEGINNER to ADULT

BOOKS: GRAMMAR, VOCABULARY, READING, WRITING,PRONUNCIATION, SLE TIME FRAME: ONE MONTH

Nickname ALVIN DAVIS
Nationality AMERICAN
Major: ESL TEACHER
Subject PRONUNCIATION
COURSE OBJECTIVES

This one month class is to learn to speak American English with a clear sounding of the words, to be able to speak to other people and have them understand what you are talking about, not slurred, or with slang.

Suggestions / Recommendations

Pronunciation Pairs: (To say the words very clearly), (To Remember to sound the words very clearly),

(To say the correct “ED” sound and the correct “S” “IZ” or “Z” sounds), (To say with the correct Intonations),

(Flow of the words together), (To put the emotions into your words), (To find the sounds that change in a word).

(To stress on words that have a different meaning), (To show excitement with some parts of speech).

Course Outline

Week 1 – Students will begin the class with a basic pronunciation test which will cover all vowel and consonant sounds as well as consonant clusters. From the students performance on this test individual vowel and consonant sounds will be identified and targeted for classroom learning. More complicated consonant combinations as well as past tense verb and plurals “S” endings will be practiced and reviewed.

Step 01: One hour of Pronunciation Pairs. Five Units per hour, will improve there pronunciation level in one week, each week will build confidence in there ability to speak and understand the new vocabulary of English.

Week 2 – Students will be introduced to word stress. As a means of teaching this students will learn syllable count, prefix and suffix pronunciation and compound word pronunciation and stress. Students will begin to learn higher aspects of American accent word stress and reduction of pronouns and modals.

Step 01: One hour of Grammar, will help the student start saying sentence patterns, this week will be the growing of Pronunciation with Vocabulary words. The American accent and word stress and reduction of pronouns will also be used to help the student understanding the forms of America stress and other country’s English.

Step 02: One Hour of Pronunciation. Continuing the Five Units per hour with now the Grammar you will start to see the students using the English outside of the classroom.

Week 3 – Students will work on English rhythm patterns to include highlighting stressed words within a sentence, thought groups and usual patterns of speech associated with pronouns, articles, contractions and prepositions. A closer look will be taken at phrasal verbs and descriptive devices such as simile and metaphor.

Step 01: Reading, Writing, listening. One hour of Reading, Writing, listening, will play a roll in the developing of the student’s interest in the English language as well as the understanding of “WHY” when a student can understand the why of English they start learning at a faster pace.

Step 02: One hour of Pronunciation. Continuing the Five Units per hour with now the Grammar, Reading, Writing, Listening, you will start to see the students using the English outside of the classroom even more then the first two weeks.

Week 4 –Students will be introduced to Intonation. Listing intonation, question/tag question and drop-rise intonation. Pitch range and expressive intonation will be covered. Blending, reduction and higher level English speaking skills useful in IELTs, TOEIC and TOEFL will be learned.

Step 01: Review, It is important for the student to review all that they have learned, and the mistakes that the teacher now can correct and get the student to remember the correct way to Speak, Read, Write, Listen and use the proper Grammar.

(GROUP) OR ONE ON ONE

RESOURCE BOOK: BASICGRAMMAR IN USE LEVEL: BEGINNER to ADULT

BOOKS: GRAMMAR, VOCABULARY, READING, WRITING, SLE, TIME FRAME: ONE MONTH

COURSE OBJECTIVES: Grammar is important because it is the language that makes it possible for us to talk about language. Grammar names the types of words and word groups that make up sentencesnot only in English but in any language. As human beings, we can put sentences together even as children–we can all do grammar. But to be able to talk about how sentences are built, about the types of words and word groups that make up sentences–that is knowing about grammar. And knowing about grammar offers a window into the human mind and into our amazingly complex mental capacity. People associate grammar with errors and correctness. But knowing about grammar also helps us understand what makes sentences and paragraphs clear and interesting and precise. Grammar can be part of literature discussions, when we and our students closely read the sentences in poetry and stories. And knowing about grammar means finding out that all languages and all dialects follow grammatical patterns.

GRAMMAR: To Learn English Grammar and how the differences are between learning English in it true form. The English Language has many different parts of Grammar and to understand each part it must be done one step at a time.

Suggestions / Recommendation:

Basic Grammar in Use: (To learn Grammar is a short time and to insure that the Grammar can be used in a formal and a business setting). To learn all the parts of Grammar, Present, Past, Present Perfect, Passive,

Verb Forms, Future, Modals, Imperatives, Auxiliary Verbs, Questions, Reported Speech, Pronouns, Possessives, Determiners, and Pronouns, with Adjectives and Adverbs, Prepositions, Two Word Verbs,

Conjunctions and Clauses.

Course Outline

  1. Week 1 – Students will begin the class with a basic grammar in use test. If they are a beginner then they will start at the Unit 01. AM/IS/ARE, This will start them learning the Positive and Negative with sentence structure and where to use them. (That’s=That is There’s=There is) they will do the exercises 1.1 to 1.6. Start: Unit 2. Exercises 2.1 to 2.5 (Questions) How to ask questions. Unit 3. Exercises 3.1 to 3.4 (Present Continuous) In these Exercises there are complete the sentences with a follow up with the teachers and with there homework. Writing about a small picture and using the proper Grammar, also writing about true sentences. Students will start Learning (Present Continuous Questions) this will build there Grammar at a faster pace. Unit 4 – 4.1 to 4.4 Exercises looking at the picture and write the proper questions to be asked in the conversation. Unit 5 – (Simple Present) Exercises 5.1 to 5.5 using Verbs. Asking Questions to other students and staff. Students will began learning (Simple Present Negative) Unit 6 Exercise 6.1 to 6.5 This will be writing negative sentences, study the information and write sentence with like, putting the verb in the correct form (Positive or Negative) Unit 7- 7.1 to 7.4 (Simple Present Questions) Write Questions also using the verbs. Write true short answers. Unit 8 – 8.1 to 8.3 (Present Continuous and Simple Present) using Present Continuous in the proper way of a sentence structure. Week 2 – Unit 9 using 9.1 to 9.4 Exercises Rewriting sentences with (got) (have) (do’s and don’t) Unit 10 is using Was/Were will be doing (Positive) (Negative) (Questions) with short answers. Start learning the correct order of the sentence. Unit 11 (Simple Past) Exercises 11.1 to 11.2 will use simple past of the verb usage. Fill in the blanks with the proper verb and Simple Past forms. Unit 12 (Simple Past Negative and Questions) Exercise 12.1 to 12.5 Complete the sentences with the proper past tense words putting the verb in the correct form. Week 3 – Unit 13 (Past Continuous) Exercises 13.1 to 13.4 looking at the picture and fill in the blanks. What did the student do? In past continuous form, complete the questions. Unit 14 (Past Continuous and Simple Past) Unit 15 (I Used to ) Unit 16 (present Perfect) Unit 17 (Simple Present and Present Perfect) Unit 18 (For, Since, Ago) Unit 19 (I Have Done and I Did). Week 4 – Unit 20 (Just, Already, and Yet) Unit 21 (I’ve Lost My Key,) Unit 22 (Passive) Unit 23 (Is Being Done) Unit 24 (Be, Have, do, in Present and Past) Unit 25 (Regular and Irregular Verbs) Unit 26 (What Are You Doing?) Unit 27 (I’m Going To) Unit 28 (Will) Unit 29 (I’ll, Will) Unit 30 (Might) Unit 31 (Can and Could) Unit 32 (Must)
  2. This is where we will start the review. The review is very important to show what the student has really learned. There will be a Grammar test to show how much the student has learned.

(GROUP) OR ONE ON ONE RESOURCE BOOK: WRITING LEVEL: BEGINNER to ADULT

BOOKS: GRAMMAR, VOCABULARY, READING, WRITING, SLE TIME FRAME: ONE MONTH

COURSE OBJECTIVES:

MORE STEPS TO WRITTING: To Learn English Writing and how the differences are between learning English in it true form. The English Language has many different parts of Writing and to understand each part it must be done one step at a time.

Suggestions / Recommendation:

More Steps to Writing: To establish writing skill’s for Business, a Contract, a E-Mail, just about anything you will need the ability to write in some form or another. Even though we live in a computer age there are still many things that need to be written or typed correctly.

Week 1- Unit 01 (Sports) Descriptive Composition Unit 02 (Entertainment) Informal Letter Unit 03 (Relationships) Discursive Composition

WeeK 2- Unit 04 (Emergencies) Short Story Unit 05 (Travel) Letter to a friend Unit 06 (Health and Fitness) Report Writing

Week 3- Unit 07 (Employment) Article Unit 08 (City and Country life) Discursive Composition

Week 4- Review, make sure of all the spelling of each thing that is done, Grammar, and content will be the best for the student to learn how to write a good report, letter, e-mail.

(GROUP) OR ONE ON ONE

RESOURCE BOOK: EnglishVOCABULARY in Use LEVEL: BEGINNER to ADULT

BOOKS: GRAMMAR, VOCABULARY, READING, WRITING, ESL TIME FRAME: ONE MONTH

COURSE OBJECTIVES: To teach the student a group of vocabulary words and how to use them in a sentence with the proper Grammar, and to understand the definition of vocabulary words and how to use them in different ways. English has a vast way of using the vocabulary words, so by teaching them how to use them in different situations will increase the ability to use them correctly.

Book: English Vocabulary in Use:

(Everyday Verbs) (Words and Grammar) (People) (The World) (At Home) (School and Workplace) (Leisure) (Social Issues)

Week 1: Everyday Verbs, Using language Words, Talking About Language, Learning Vocabulary, Learn words in Family, Picture and Diagrams, Exercises, 2.1 to 9.5

Week 2: (Bring) (Get) (Phrasal Verbs) (Everyday Things) (Talking) (Moving) (Conjunctions) (Time Words) (Places) Exercises, 10.1 to 18.5

Week 3: (Manner) (Irregular Verbs) (Common Uncountable Words) (Common Adjective Good and Bad) (Words and Prepositions) (Prefixes) Exercises, 19.1 to 25.6

Week 4: Review Exercises 2.1 to 25.6, Test, and correct the mistakes the student are making.

(GROUP) OR ONE ON ONE RESOURCE BOOK: SPEAKING LISTENING EXPRESSION LEVEL: BEGINNER to ADULT

BOOKS: GRAMMAR, VOCABULARY, READING, WRITING, SLE TIME FRAME: ONE MONTH

COURSE OBJECTIVES: Intro provides numerous opportunities for high beginning students to actively learn contemporary American English expressions. This text is also appropriate for vocabulary courses. – Expressions are presented in interesting contexts — i.e., speaking on a car phone, being afraid to talk in school — and are spiralled through natural dialogues and listening activities. – Learning strategies, such as vocabulary indexing and clustering, focus students on becoming independent learners. – Activities include games, cartoons, role-plays, surveys, and dictations, as well as listening and writing activities that appeal to a wide range of learning styles.

SPEAKING LISTENING EXPRESSION:

The SLE (Speaking, Listening, Expression) program is a conversation program for adult and young adult learners of English as a foreign language. It aims to improve learners’ communicative competence through an emphasis on interaction. It enables learners to acquire and practice using important functions and expressions in natural contexts while, at the same time, stimulating conversation related to various topics and real-life situations. It utilizes a number of communicative approaches to language learning in order to facilitate the learners’ timely and effective acquisition of English. The aim of the program is to improve learners’ speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills as well as their vocabulary and grammar skills. The SLE series provides learners with the tools they need to use their newly acquired language skills in the real world. It aims to help build learners’ confidence in using English outside the classroom by increasing their understanding of and involvement in the learning process. Most importantly, the SLE series will challenge learners and help them believe in themselves. All learners participating in the SLE program will be able take the Pagoda motto to heart. Week 1: (Nice to Meet You) (What’s your Favorite?) (Time is on my Side) (What are you doing Nowadays?) (Weather and Seasons) (Red Letter Day) (There’s still a lot Left)

Week 2: (All in the Family) (The Future is Bright) What Happened?) (I can Do It!) (Nice Suit) (Not Just Another Pretty Face) (Learning the Ins and Outs) (Wild Kingdom)

Week 3: (Would You Rather?) (Growing Up) (That Sounds Fine) (Give Me One good Reason) (Home is Where the Heart is)

Week 4: Review, Test, and correct the mistakes from each Unit, make sure there is no questions that are not answered.

(GROUP) OR ONE ON ONE RESOURCE BOOK: READING ADVANTAGE LEVEL: BEGINNER to ADULT

BOOKS: GRAMMAR, VOCABULARY, READING, WRITING, SLE TIME FRAME: ONE MONTH

COURSE OBJECTIVES: what a language objective is

  • steps that teachers can take to create language objectives
  • how to implement language objectives in a general education classroom
  • how to align objectives to content and language standards
  • articulate for learners the academic language functions and skills that they need to master to fully participate in the lesson and meet the grade-level content standards.
  • are beneficial not only for language learners but for all students in a class, as everyone can benefit from the clarity that comes with a teacher outlining the requisite academic language to be learned and mastered in each lesson.

Week 1: (Reading Comprehension) (Idioms) (Vocabulary Reinforcement) (Target Vocabulary) (What do you Think?) (Video Jockeys) (Coffee Culture) (Around the World)

Week 2: Review last week progress and (Test) (The Puffer Fish) (Getting Married) (Say It with Flowers) (Bollywood) (The Nobel Prize)

Week 3: Review last week progress and (Test) (A Funny Cure) (Palm Reading) (Amazing Memory) (Incredible Dogs) (Diamonds)

Week 4: Review last week progress and (Test) (Space Explorers) (Happy New Year) (Text Messaging) (Urban Legends)

08:00 to 08:50: Pronunciation Pairs

09:00 to 09:50:Basic Grammar in Use

10:00 to 10:50: More Steps to Writing

11:00 to 11:50: EnglishVOCABULARY in Use

12:00 to 13:00: Lunch

13:00 to 13:50: SPEAKING LISTENING EXPRESSION

14:00 to 14:50: READING ADVANTAGE

15:00 to 16:50: Optional Classes (POP) (MOVIES) (SURVIVAL) (PATTERN) (CNN) (BUSINESS) (PRESENTATION)

PHILIPPINE WORKER ARE SPREADING “EBOLA” ALL OVER THE WORLD!!!! “YIKES”!!!   Leave a comment

 

 

MANILA, Philippines (AP) — The World Health Organization called the Ebola outbreak “the most severe, acute health emergency seen in modern times” on Monday but also said that economic disruptions can be curbed if people are adequately informed to prevent irrational moves to dodge infection.

WHO Director-General Margaret Chan, citing World Bank figures, said 90 percent of economic costs of any outbreak “come from irrational and disorganized efforts of the public to avoid infection.”

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Staffers of the global health organization “are very well aware that fear of infection has spread around the world much faster than the virus,” Chan said in a statement read out to a regional health conference in the Philippine capital, Manila.

“We are seeing, right now, how this virus can disrupt economies and societies around the world,” she said, but added that adequately educating the public was a “good defense strategy” and would allow governments to prevent economic disruptions.

The Ebola epidemic has killed more than 4,000 people, mostly in the West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, according to WHO figures published last week.

Chan did not specify those steps but praised the Philippines for holding an anti-Ebola summit last week which was joined by government health officials and private sector representatives, warning that the Southeast Asian country was vulnerable due to the large number of Filipinos working abroad.

While bracing for Ebola, health officials should continue to focus on major health threats, including non-communicable diseases, she said.

Philippine Health Secretary Enrique Ona said authorities will ask more than 1,700 Filipinos working in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea to observe themselves for at least 21 days for Ebola symptoms in those countries first if they plan to return home.

Once home, they should observe themselves for another 21 days and then report the result of their self-screening to health authorities to be doubly sure they have not been infected, he said, adding that hospitals which would deal with any Ebola patients have already been identified in the Philippines.

Last month, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urged leaders in the most affected countries to establish special centers that aim to isolate infected people from non-infected relatives in an effort to stem the spread of Ebola.

Ban has also appealed for airlines and shipping companies not to suspend services to countries affected by Ebola. Doing so, he said, hinders delivery of humanitarian and medical assistance.

 

“HERE” is “ALVIN” come and learn english fast and easy!!!!!!!   Leave a comment

take a pose

 

 

Teachers can make a class “FUN” never say the same thing to students, never always say good morning, maybe if it is after lunch to see if the hear you!!! Haaha and they turn and say “NO” teacher it is afternoon. Always change your teaching ways. Never be the same.

IT IS NOT WHAT I TEACH YOU TODAY

IT IS WHAT YOU REMEMBER TOMMORROW!!!!

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Basic English lessons to advanced Leave a comment

Basic English lessons to advanced

To view a lesson click on the category of your choice. Then you will see a list of lessons that are related to your choice.

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Learning the basics of the English language

Start learning English with the list of basic English lessons by clicking on this link. The list is for people that have little or no experience of the English language. The list can also be used by those that might want to refresh their knowledge on some of the English basics. The lessons are in no particular order, so pick you can choose which lesson you would like to start learning from the list available after clicking on the link.

Learning English level 1 basic

Learning English level 1 has over seventy lessons to choose from. You can start learning this level by clicking on the link above or by clicking on the menu at the top and clicking all lessons. Basic English level one it is for people with little or have no experience of the English language or want to refresh their English. The first lesson is for learning the English alphabet and second one you will learn about numbers. The rest of the basic English level 1 lessons, you will be able to start learning some basic English words, how to greet people, jobs, food computers and much more. If you don’t see a lesson of your choice you can request a lesson by leaving a comment in the contact us in the menu.

Learning English level 2 basic

The next level is learning basic English level 2 which you will find is slightly more difficult than basic English level 1. There are a wide range of topics such as money, greetings, seasons and the months of the year are covered in depth for you to start learning at an Easy Pace Learning. Remember if you find that you are struggling with any lesson or have a question, post a message on the Easy Pace Learning forum, we will always try and help you and answer all your questions as soon as possible.

Learning English level 3 basic

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Alvin Lester Davis West Fork, AR / 479-839-3126 or 501-242-2000 / alvindavis99@gmail.com Stationary Engineer/English Teacher

Summary of Experience · Supervising mechanics on Central Plant equipment and Boiler Rooms for Industrial Plant, Hospitals and Airports.

  • In excess of 15 years with civilian and mechanical engineering equipment concerned with the maintenance and repairs of wide range of equipment in boiler rooms operation and maintenance such as four (4) units of oil fired high temperature water boilers with a capacity of 45,000,000 BTU/hr. per unit and four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units with a capacity of 5000 tons per unit, Water and Waste Treatment Plants, Utilities Supports, and D.I. system for a Pharmaceutical Company.

Experience CIP School in Angeles City www.cipschool.com January 2009 to October 2013

Teacher · Teaching Korean and Japanese student all English subjects

  • As of May 2011 took over as Head Teacher of 58 Teachers and 80 Students

Shane English School – Dongying, China

January 2008 to September 2009

English Teacher · Taught 5yr to 15yr old Chinese children with a class size of 8 to 32 equaling 200 students a week.

    • Taught Basic English to advanced English in a night class of 20yr to 40yr people
  • Skill’s Interviews, passing SAT for enrollment for the USA

 

Novartis– Emeryville, CA

2006 to 2008 Master Mechanic

  • Served as Master Mechanic for 22 Buildings with Pharm Equipment, such as: Boilers, Chillers, Sterilizers and performed P.M’s Corrective Maintenance.

VERIZON DATA BASE – Sacramento, CA

2005 to 2006

H.V.A.C. TECH / SUPERVISOR

  • Responsibilities included: Chillers, Boilers, H.V.A.C. System in the Building. P.M.’s Corrective Maintenance On all Building System’s, including but not limited to VAV, Air-Handlers, Cooling Towers, Helping the Electricians on there Craft as well.

COMPUTER SCIENCES CORP – (EUSA CH-47 FLIGHT SIMULATOR UNIT 15367 APO) / South Korea, AP

Boeing / L3 2002 to 2005

Stationary Engineer / HVAC Engineer · Repair of Chillers, Boilers, working with Building Control Systems.

    • Teaching English and Engineering A.C.T. to 20,166 Collage Students
  • Supervising HVAC tech’s for all Army Bases in South Korea

 

Yamas Controls 2001 to 2002 Chiller Specialist · Working with Company’s such as Genentech, Highland Hospital, Our Lady of Holy Angels.

  • Responsibilities: Repair of Chillers, Boilers, Air-Handling Units, Controls
  • Equipment: Trane, Clever-Brooks, Westinghouse, Carrier, Copeland.
  • Left Company to go overseas.

Saudi Oger Ltd – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

1996 to 2000

Supervisor/H&C Maintenance

  • King Khalid International Airport Project
  • Utilities Division, Heating & Cooling Section
  • Supervising Maintenance personnel of Central Plant Heating & Cooling Section composed of Foremen, Lead Mechanics, Mechanics, HVAC Personnel, I&C Technicians, and Plant Electricians.

 

  • Responsibilities: include plant machinery’s e.g. four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units, each with a capacity of producing 5000 tons per hour of chilled water, four (4) diesel fuel oil fired high temperature water boilers, each with a capacity of producing 45,000,000 BTU per hour with an output temperature of 204OC, six (6) cooling towers and fans, CHW & HTW piping equaling a total length of 12.8 Kilometers. In addition, submitting daily, weekly and monthly reports to the Superintendent and Project Manager.
  • Maintenance Duty Officer: On many occasions assumed the duties and responsibilities for all contractual decisions and work co-ordinations at the KKIA Airport during night shifts and weekends.

Boot’s Pharmaceutical Co. – Shreveport, LA

1993 to 1996 Chief Stationary Engineer of Central Plant

  • Responsibilities: included (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, (4) 250 PSI water tube steam Ryans D.I. Water system, 4 Culligan water softeners. Also responsibilities submit time sheets, scheduling of shifts, man-hour reports, monthly reports, weekly reports, chemical reports. Compressors, Super Cooled Systems, Automatic Controls for Boilers & Chillers, Barbare / Colman, Blue Prints, P.I.D. Fiber Optic Systems. February 1996 went to Saudi Arabia (company was sold to B.A.S.F). American Towers – Shreveport, LA

1991 to 1993 Chief Stationary Engineer for 16 Stories Office Building

  • Responsibilities included to supervise (6) Stationary Engineers, (2) Cleverbrook’s Steam Boilers, Maintenance and Repair, Operations, Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance, Budgeting for $1,000,000 a year Maintenance & Operation.

Schumpert Hospital – Shreveport, LA

1983 to 1991 Stationary Engineer · Operations& Maintenance of Steam System, included autoclaves, boilers, 150,000 LB steam per hour, water softeners, (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, Cooling Towers, Pumps, Compressors, D.A. tank operations & maintenance heat exchanger units, emergency systems. Mogal water treatment daily assessment.

  • Babcox& Wilcox steam boilers with 26 Turbine Generators.

Education/ Qualification and Training

Oklahoma State University – Stillwater, OK

B.A. – Facilities Engineering Associates Degree – Fiber Optic / Solar Design/ Engineering / BAMS

A/C School – Oklahoma State University

Boiler Seminar Military Secret Clearance Special Skills Memory Logic, Reading & Interpretation Blue Prints, Problem Solving, Electronic Technology

“DO NOT” HELP the Philippines don’t send “ANYTHING” be smart USA   2 comments

Philippine volcano spews lava; thousands evacuated

 

List of active volcanoes in the Philippines

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Active volcanoes in the Philippines, as categorized by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), include volcanoes in the country having erupted within historical times (within the last 600 years), with accounts of these eruptions documented by man; or having erupted within the last 10,000 years (holocene) based on analyses of datable materials. However, there is no consensus among volcanologists on how to define an “active” volcano. As of 2012[update], PHIVOLCS lists 23 volcanoes as active in the Philippines, 21 of which have historical eruptions and two strongly fumarolic volcanoes – Cabalian and Leonard Kniaseff.[1][not in citation given]; the Smithsonian Institution‘s Global Volcanism Program categories 20 Philippine volcanoes as “historical” and 59 as “holocene”.[2]

The Smithsonian Institution’s Global Volcanism Program (GVP) list volcanoes with historical, Holocene eruptions, or possibly older if strong signs of volcanism are still evident through thermal features like fumaroles, hot springs, mud pots, etc.[3] GVP currently lists 50 Philippines volcanoes.[2] The eruptions from the table below were based more on GVP which gives a more detailed eruption history for a particular mountain. The frequency of Historical Eruptions are based on definite historical eruptions and excludes questionable or Uncertain accounts based on the two sources mentioned.

The list below shows 25 active volcanoes in the Philippines was based more on the PHIVOLCS list with some included from the GVP list. The number is not a definite number and could depend on someone’s definition of “active” or historical timeframe. Also, volcanoes listed as inactive or potentially active could renew activity after long periods of dormancy such as Mount Pinatubo in 1991.

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) introduced the” Information Portal for Philippine Earthquake and Volcano” during a seminar-forum on Sept. 15, 2014 at the institute’s auditorium, Quezon City. Led by its Director, Renato U. Solidum, Jr., the heads of the 4 technical divisions gave brief descriptions on the content of the portal.

Following a series of joint meetings with partner-agencies Japan International Cooperation Agency-Japan Science and Technology Agency (JICA-JST) and National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED), PHIVOLCS has come up with a prototype of the Information Portal for Philippine Earthquake and Volcano which will be available for public viewing in the near future.

Continue reading..
 PHIVOLCS and Province of Albay Commemorate 200-years of 1814 Mayon Volcano Eruption, 26-27 June 2014, Legaspi, Albay
Friday, 18 July 2014 06:53

Legaspi, Albay. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) in partnership with the Province of Albay commemorated the 200-years anniversary of the 1814 Mayon Volcano Eruption on 26-27 June at the La Piazza Hotel, Legaspi, Albay.

Eruptions from Mayon Volcano that people remember date back to 1968, 1978, 1984, 1993, 2000-2001, 2006 and 2009. What most people are probably not aware of is that, two hundred years ago, on 01 February 1814, Mayon Volcano gave one of its biggest, most destructive eruptions. This event affected the southern slope of the volcano, specifically Camalig, Cagsaua, Budiao and Guinobatan and resulted to 1,200 casualties. The ruins of Cagsaua Church wherein only the bell tower remains standing is a reminder and testimony of this disaster.

The 2-day conference was held to provide venue to hold a meeting of experts from different fields to share knowledge and experience. To have a science, historical and social perspectives, invited presentations ‘had topics ranging from understanding Mayon

Earthquake Impact Assessment Methodologies: Exposure Database Development and Calculations Workshop for Region II and III State Universities and Colleges
Monday, 16 June 2014 01:20

PHIVOLCS conducted another workshop entitled “Earthquake Impact Assessment Methodologies: Exposure Database Development and Calculations” for the Region II and III State Colleges and Universities (SUCs). This activity is in line with the Regional Disaster Science and Management S&T Capacity Development Project, which is being funded by DOST-PCIEERD, and which PHIVOLCS is providing the technical expertise.

“DO” “YOU” want to live to be 200 years old????   Leave a comment

 

 

 

Radical Life Extension Is Already Here, But We’re Doing it Wrong

We’ve already tacked three decades onto the average lifespan of an American, so what’s wrong with adding another few decades?

lifeextension_615.jpg

A centenarian riding his bike in Long Beach, California (Reuters).

So far as we know, the last hundred years have been the most radical period of life extension in all of human history. At the turn of the twentieth century, life expectancy for Americans was just over 49 years; by 2010, that number had risen to 78.5 years, mostly on account of improved sanitation and basic medicine. But life extension doesn’t always increase our well-being, especially when all that’s being extended is decrepitude. There’s a reason that Ponce de Leon went searching for the fountain of youth—if it were the fountain of prolonged dementia and arthritis he may not have bothered.

Over the past twenty years, biologists have begun to set their sights on the aging process itself, in part by paying close attention to species like the American Lobster, which, despite living as long as fifty years, doesn’t seem to age much at all. Though some of this research has shown promise, it’s not as though we’re on the brink of developing a magical youth potion. Because aging is so biologically complex, encompassing hundreds of different processes, it’s unlikely that any one technique will add decades of youth to our lives. Rather, the best we can hope for is a slow, incremental lengthening of our “youth-span,” the alert and active period of our lives.

Not everyone is thrilled by the prospect of radical life extension. As funding for anti-aging research has exploded, bioethicists have expressed alarm, reasoning that extreme longevity could have disastrous social effects. Some argue that longer life spans will mean stiffer competition for resources, or a wider gap between rich and poor. Others insist that the aging process is important because it gives death a kind of time release effect, which eases us into accepting it. These concerns are well founded. Life spans of several hundred years are bound to be socially disruptive in one way or another; if we’re headed in that direction, it’s best to start teasing out the difficulties now.

But there is another, deeper argument against life extension—the argument from evolution. Its proponents suggest that we ought to avoid tinkering with any human trait borne of natural selection. Doing so, they argue, could have unforeseen consequences, especially given that natural selection has such a sterling engineering track record. If our bodies grow old and die, the thinking goes, then there must be a good reason, even if we don’t understand it yet. Nonsense, says Bennett Foddy, a philosopher (and flash game developer!) from Oxford, who has written extensively about the ethics of life extension. “We think about aging as being a natural human trait, and it is natural, but it’s not something that was selected for because it was beneficial to us.” Foddy told me. “There is this misconception that everything evolution provides is beneficial to individuals and that’s not correct.”

Foddy has thought long and hard about the various objections to life extension and, for the most part, has found them wanting. This is our conversation about those objections, and about the exciting new biology of aging.

People usually regard life extension as a futuristic technology, but you begin your paper by discussing the ways that we’ve already extended the human lifespan. What’s driven that?

Foddy: The reason I present it that way, is that there’s always this background moral objection in enhancement debates, where a technology is perceived to be new, and by virtue of being new, is depicted as threatening or even strange. That goes for everything from genetic engineering to steroids to cloning and on and on. I think it’s always worth contextualizing these things in terms of the normal. So with human cloning it’s worth remembering that it’s exactly the same as twinning. With steroids, it’s worth remembering that in many ways it’s not that different from training and exercise, and also that people have been taking testosterone since ancient times. I think this way you can kind of resist the idea that something is wrong just because it’s strange.
When you’re talking about medicines that help us live longer, it’s important to realize how much we’ve already accomplished. In the last 150 years or so, we’ve doubled our life span from 40 to 80 years, and that’s primarily through the use of things you can characterize as being medical science. In some cases it’s clear that we’re talking about medical enhancement—vaccines, for instance, or surgical hygiene and sterilization. And then more broadly there are other, non-medical things like the sanitation of the water supply and the pasteurization of milk and cheese. All of these things have saved an enormous amount of life.
It used to be that people would die of an infectious disease; they’d be struck down when they were very young or when they were older and their immune system was weak. Now almost nobody in the first world dies of infectious disease; we’ve basically managed to completely eradicate infectious disease through medical science. If, at the outset of this process, you asked people if we should develop technologies that would make us live until we’re 80 on average instead of until we’re 40, people might have expressed these same kind of misgivings that you hear today. They might have said, “Oh no that would be way too long, that would be unnatural, let’s not do that.”
So, in a way, we shouldn’t view it as being extremely strange to develop these medicines, but in another sense we’re at a new stage now, because now we’re at the forefront of having medicines that actually address the aging process. And that’s what I’m interested in talking about—the kinds of medicines that actually slow down the aging process, or at least some of the mechanisms of aging.
Can you explain how senescence, the biological process of aging, is unevenly distributed across species?
Foddy: There are different animals that are affected differently by various processes of aging. In my paper I go into the case of the American Lobster, which lives about as long as a human being. When you dissect one of these lobsters at the end of its life, its body doesn’t show much in the way of weakening or wasting like you see in a human body of advanced age. That suggests that aging can evolve differently in different species. Lobsters seem to have evolved an adaptation against the cellular lifespan. There’s this phenomenon where the DNA in our cells basically unravel after they’ve divided a certain amount of times, but lobsters have this enzyme that helps them replenish their telomeres—the caps that hold DNA together.
That’s one of the reasons why lobsters don’t seem to undergo aging in the same way that we do. Other species give off an antioxidant chemical in their bodies that prevent these oxidizing free radicals in our bodies from breaking us down. That’s why doctor’s recommend that you have a certain amount of antioxidants—some species are really good at producing those naturally.
There is this idea that when you’re evolving you make certain trade-offs. Lobsters and clams don’t really move around a lot; their bodies move and grow very slowly and one of the upsides of that is that they’ve been able to invest their evolutionary chips, so to speak, in resisting the aging process. Human beings, on the other hand, have to move around quite a lot. We have giant brains and we have to be able to run away from saber tooth tigers. As a result we have bodies that burn a lot of calories, and so that’s where our chips are invested. It’s just a difference in our evolutionary environment and that’s why we’ve evolved to live and die the way we do. But it could have easily not turned out that way—that’s the point I really want to make.
lobster.jpg
What are the current biological limits on our human life span, or our human “youth span,” as you call it—the time that we’re able to live as young, vibrant, reproducing individuals?
Foddy: The sky is sort of the limit there. There won’t be a magic pill that gives us infinite youth, but over time there will probably be different technologies that allow you a few extra years of youth. We think of aging as being a unitary thing, but it’s made up of hundreds of different processes. So, one of the different things we think about, for example, is dementia, the state where your brain sort of wastes away. Now, if we discover a way of reversing that process, or slowing that process, that would be one dimension where we no longer age, where our minds will stay youthful for longer. It’s also possible that we might be able to find a way of stopping people’s muscles from wasting away as they get older.
Nothing is going to be super dramatic, but there will be a point where you’ll look back a hundred years and notice that people used to get really kind of feeble and after awhile they weren’t capable of really thinking or processing information anymore, and they had to go into a home and they had to be looked after and nursed for a time. And that will seem very old-fashioned and very barbaric, but I very much doubt it will happen at a moment in time where we suddenly realize that some magic pill has exponentially extended our youth. Part of that’s because we’re not exactly clear what aging is. We’ve identified a whole range of processes, but there ere still a whole lot of arguments in the scientific community about what is really responsible for aging, and which of the processes are subsidiary to other processes.
Have we glimpsed, even theoretically, ways that we might add to that youth-span. What are the bleeding edge technologies that might allow us to overcome aging?
Foddy: I’m not a scientist, so I don’t want to weigh in too heavily on somebody’s body of research. We’ve seen promising results looking at the lobsters and we’ve seen promising results with antioxidants, even aspirin, but as I said these things are going to be incremental. You meet a lot of people in the scientific community that are true believers and they’re expecting a kind of a radical thing. And it’s not as though we never have a radical thing in medicine, but what we have more frequently is incremental advances.
Cancer is a great example of the kind of incremental progress I’m talking about. In 1970, your odds of surviving 5 years after you’ve were diagnosed with certain kinds of cancer were slim; those chances have increased substantially. But we still react to the idea of getting cancer as though it were 1970 because we don’t really process incremental changes. Like with chemotherapy, they just change out one or two drugs every year based on trials that show that the new drug is 2 percent more effective than the previous drug. That’s constantly going on, but it really isn’t announced. Instead, we get the occasional story in the news about a miracle cure for cancer, and it always turns out not to be as good as they had hoped and everyone begins to get disillusioned about science and the value of medical progress. But when you run the comparisons across decades, you see something much more dramatic.
You give an interesting account of how the aging process evolved in humans. You argue that aging is not the result of an optimizing process, but that instead it’s a byproduct of an optimizing process. Can you explain why that difference is so important?
Foddy: I should say, first of all, that this is not original to me; this is very well established in evolutionary biology. We have a number of genetic traits that we developed because they were advantageous from the perspective of natural selection—that is, they helped us to survive and reproduce. People that had the gene for that trait had the ability to reproduce more than people that didn’t have it. It’s easy to imagine that every gene that we have is selected because it gave a positive advantage in this way, but it turns out there are trade-offs. A number of the processes of aging seem to have arisen because our bodies were not doing enough maintenance, because they were busy doing something else. The misconception that people often have is that any trade-off that we have is going to be directly beneficial, directly advantageous. But that’s not right.
The second thing to say is that aging usually happens to an organism after it reaches menopause. Things that happen after menopause are much less interesting in terms of evolution, because they have much less of an effect. If I’ve already reached the age where I can’t reproduce, then aging that takes effect at this point in my life is not going to affectwhether or not I reproduce. The game is sort of already over for me. As a result, natural selection doesn’t tend to weed out genes that take effect after you’ve reached the age of menopause. So, there is this idea that over time you can amass genes in your genome that have nothing to do with survival or not surviving, because they only activate after you reach a certain age. So, over time, some of these are goingto be good genes and some of themare going to be bad. It’s goingto be this kind of mix, but it’s certainly not going to be the case that they’re on balance beneficial. We’ve got hundreds or thousands of genes that don’t start to harm us until we reach old age, and those genes are responsible for a lot of what actuallyconstitutes aging. So, in this sense, we think about aging as being a natural human activity or a human trait—and it is natural, but it’s not something thatwas selected because it was beneficial to us. There is this misconception that everything evolution provides has to be beneficial toindividuals and that’s not correct.

“There is this misconception that everything evolution provides has to be beneficial to individuals and that’s not correct.”

One defense of aging that your paper takes quite seriously is the argument from evolution, which was first put forth by Frances Fukuyama. Fukuyama claims that we should resist the temptation to tinker with any characteristic that we have been given through the process of natural selection. He argues that evolution can be relied upon to produce good results and that we ought not to mess with the fruit of its processes. What’s wrong with this view?
Foddy: Fukuyama has this idea that evolution is very complicated, which is true. We don’t always understand why we’ve evolved to be a certain way. Sometimes it looks like something is useful, but in fact it’s performing some kind of role that we don’t know much about. Fukuyama is also correct that sometimes we interfere with complicated biological systems without really understanding what the effects will be, and that then we wind up with some unwanted effect. That’s all true.
The thing that I disagree with him about is his presumption that if we have a trait that’s evolved, that it must be beneficial to us in some way, and that we have some good reason for allowing that trait stick around. Now he’s not talking strictly about aging; his book discusses all kinds of intervention on the human organism. But, when it comes to aging, his argument can’t even succeed on its own merits, because we know for a fact that aging is not the sort of thing that is produced by natural selection in the kind of positive way that he is talking about. He says it’s not always easy to do nature one better, but that’s not what we’re doing when we’re combating aging. We’re not trying to do nature one better, because nature doesn’t care that we grow old and die. This is neglect, evolutionary neglect. We shouldn’t think about it as interfering with the sort of complex ecological balance in the way that he’s worried about.
Now that’s not to say that our current mode of life extension is ideal. Some of the biggest strains on our resources stem from the fact that populations are getting older as birthrate’s go down, especially in the first world. Aging societies are spending more and more on nursing, and so I think that it makes sense to pursue a youth-extending medicine that would diminish the number of years that we have to spend in nursing homes. You could imagine us living more like the lobster, where we still live to be about 80-85, but we’re alert and active until we drop dead. In that scenario we wouldn’t have this giant burden where the state has to support and pay to nurse people that are unable to look after themselves anymore.
Now, it has to be said that the story of medicine and medical progress in the past 50 years has not been heading that way. If anything, we’re extending the number of years that we spend needing nursing. We’ve gotten good at keeping people alive once they’re fairly decrepit. And that sort of guarantees that you have the maximum drain on resources, while also producing the kind of minimum amount of human benefit. You get to be 90 years old and your hip goes out, and we give you a massively expensive hip replacement, but we don’t do things to prevent your body from wasting away and becoming corroded when you’re 20, 30 or 40.
There’s this great Greek myth, the myth of Tithonus, that always comes to mind. Tithonus was a mortal who was in love with Eos, the goddess of the dawn. Eos didn’t want Tithonus to grow old and die, so she went to Zeus to ask for eternal life, which was granted. But, she forgot to ask for eternal youth, and so Tithonus just gets older and older and more decrepit, and eventually he can’t really move, and then finally he turns into a grasshopper in the end. That’s sort of the course that we’re on with our current approach to medicine and life extension.
tithonus3.jpg
Some ethicists have pointed out that death is one of the major forces for equality in the world, and that welfare disparities will be worsened if some people can afford to postpone old age, or avoid it altogether, while others are unable to. What do you say to them?
Foddy: I think that’s right. I mean there are concerns whenever we develop any kind of medicine or any kind of technology—the concern that these things are going to widen welfare gaps. The story of industrialization is that the people who could afford the cars and machines and factories in Western countries were able to produce a lot more and generate a lot more wealth than people in poorer agrarian economies. That’s a serious issue. It’s probably true that if people in the first world were, through some sort of medical intervention, able to live to be 200 years old and people in Bangladesh were still dying at a relatively young age, that would tend to widen the distance in personal wealth.
And look this has already happened. It’s already unfair that I will on average live to be 80 and yet, if I were born before some arbitrary date, or in some other place, I would live much less longer. Those things are unfair and it’s worth worrying about them, but I don’t think the correct response is to hold off on the science. It’s better if everybody can eventually get this medicine, because living a long time is not a positional good, it’s an absolute good. It would be great if everybody could live to be 150, because that would benefit every single person. It’s not a good that benefits you only if other people are worse off. When you have goods like that you should try to develop them and then you should worry separately about making sure that they get delivered to people in poorer areas, whether it’s through government aid or massive production.
Another objection to the elimination of aging is this idea that the aging process makes an elderly person’s death less painful for the survivors around her, because it gradually forces people to stop relying on her, and forces her to gradually remove herself from society. You call this the argument from psycho-social history.
Foddy: This is Leon Kass’ argument. He thinks aging is just fantastic for this reason because it helps us to let go of somebody. And of course it’s true that when people grow old, they become less useful to society, and more socially difficult, which places burdens on people. And in a lot of cases we respond to this by cutting them out of our lives, essentially. People get older, they move into a nursing home, and we see them less and less, and then when they finally die everyone’s like, “well it was expected.” Advanced age sort of helps us prepare emotionally for letting go of people, but it seems to me that it’s not good for the person who gets old.
Now, what would the world be like if people dropped dead in good health when they reach a certain age? It would be very sad, but on the upside the person would’ve had 20 or 30 years of additional integration into society and we would’ve been able to spend more time with them. I’ve got to say that I would’ve enjoyed my grandmother’s presence a lot more if she’d been able to run around and to play and work and be part of society in her extremely advanced age.
Nick Bostrom has said that people have fallen victim to a kind of Stockholm syndrome when it comes to aging. The idea being that because aging has always been an insurmountable obstacle for humanity, that we have dignified it more than it deserves, that we contort ourselves logically and rhetorically to defend it precisely because it is so inescapable. Does that sound right to you?
Foddy: Yes, I think that’s right, although Nick draws conclusions that are a bit more extreme than I would tend to draw. I think that we do have a tendency to kind of rationalize things that we don’t think we can do anything about. This is a perfectly healthy attitude if you really can’t do anything about the aging process—it’s better to accept it and kind of talk about it as being a natural part of life, not something to rail against or feel bad about. It’s something that everybody goes through. Now if it did so happen that we could discover a medicine that completely prevents that process from taking place, we would have to re-evaluate at that stage and realize that we’ve done some emotional rationalization here and the conditions for it no longer apply. We no longer need to comfort ourselves with the inevitability of death if it’s not actually inevitable.
Having said that, death is, in fact, inevitable. Even if we solve every medical problem, you still have a 1 in 1,000 chance of dying every year by some sort of accident. So, on those odds you could probably expect to live to be about 1,000. I don’t think it’s ever going to be the case that we will live forever. It’s not even going to be 1,000. We’re probably talking about living to be 120 or 150 or somewhere around there, but to me the idea that we have to accept living to 80 rather than 120 is bizarre given that it’s not so long ago that we lived to 40.
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